The traditional Malay kampong settlements—consisting of stilt houses built along the shoreline—are declining in number and are now found only in select rural areas. SG&A includes costs related to selling, general, and administrative expenses. These fall into a specific category of operating expenses, and may not include all those involved in your operating budget or cost of goods sold.

  1. Skyscraper hotels and office buildings now blend with the British colonial architecture, Chinese shophouses, and Malay kampongs (villages once thatch-roofed, now tin-roofed).
  2. The better you track daily spending in your business today, the less likely it’ll get out of control in the future.
  3. Of this, $7.70 billion was research and development, while $6.79 billion was selling, general, and administrative.
  4. To restore profits, these airlines are concentrating on domestic routes and short-haul regional routes, allowing SIA to manage their international long-haul flights, which are sometimes money-losers for these airlines.
  5. The settlement changed hands several times in the ensuing centuries and was eventually burned in the 17th century and fell into obscurity.

The government says this has helped Singapore be a very safe country.[13] Singapore is one of the founding members of ASEAN. In addition to its port activities, Singapore has tin-smelting works, pineapple canneries, rubber factories, oil refineries, and sawmills. The east lagoon is the regional centre for container transshipments. Singapore’s thriving banking, insurance, and brokerage firms and its excellent transport, communications, and storage facilities have helped make it the chief trading and financial centre of Southeast Asia. The traditional city proper stretches north and east of the port area and is characterized by low (140–150-foot [40–50-metre]) hills.

While the airline tried to retain as much staff as possible, it did reduce headcount by around 20% from pre-pandemic levels and ordered pay cuts of up to 35% for top executives. That vulnerability has been there from the start, and it’s not because SIA hasn’t tried to build aviation is sg&a fixed or variable hubs around the region before. In China, it proposed to buy a stake in China Eastern Airlines in 2007 but shareholders of the state-owned airline rejected the deal. A joint venture between SIA’s budget airline Scoot and Nok Air in Thailand collapsed during the pandemic.

Water supply

Public schools and in the media also have rules against Singlish.[83] There are many Singapore accents in English because of the many languages and identities of people in the city. Languages can even change over the generations and children may speak different languages and have different accents from their mother. For example, in a Singaporean Chinese family, the grandmother might speak Hokkien as her first language.

Singapore is also a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the East Asia Summit, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Commonwealth of Nations. SG&A are the operating expenses incurred to 1) promote, sell, and deliver a company’s products and services, and 2) manage the overall company. Singapore’s port area, one of the world’s largest, covers 36 square miles (93 square km). The Keppel wharves, which lie protected between the islands of Brani and Sentosa, are deepwater and contain major docks and warehouses. Keppel is Southeast Asia’s major transshipment point for exports of oil, rubber, plywood, lumber, and spices.


The forms of Mandarin spoken in Singapore range from Standard Mandarin to a pidgin known as Singdarin. Besides Mandarin, many southern Chinese dialects are also spoken in Singapore. In an income statement, gross profit less SG&A (and depreciation expense) equals the operating profit, also known as earnings before interest and tax (EBIT).

It consists of the diamond-shaped Singapore Island and some 60 small islets; the main island occupies all but about 18 square miles of this combined area. The main island is separated from Peninsular Malaysia to the north by Johor Strait, a narrow channel crossed by a road and rail causeway that is more than half a mile long. The southern limits of the state run through Singapore Strait, where outliers of the Riau-Lingga Archipelago—which forms a part of Indonesia—extend to within 10 miles of the main island. Looking at your company’s income statement and comparing it to your overall sales can give you a better idea of exactly how well your business is performing at any given time.

SG&A: Selling, General, and Administrative Expenses

Its growth was assured by the demand for the tin and rubber of the Malay Peninsula, for which the port was a natural shipping outlet. Sometimes, SG&A will be a section, with items broken out in individual lines. If this is the case, then different line items will have differing forecast methods. For example, rent most likely will be a fixed dollar value every period. On the other hand, advertising expenses will vary with the strategic decisions a company makes during the given period. SG&A expenses as a percent of revenue are generally high for healthcare and telecommunications businesses but relatively low for real estate and energy.

The category of selling, general, and administrative expenses (SG&A) in a company’s income statement includes all general and administrative expenses (G&A) as well as the direct and indirect selling expenses of the business. This line item includes nearly all business costs not directly attributable to making a product or performing a service. SG&A includes the costs of managing the company and the expenses of delivering its products or services.

The government maintains a national museum, library, and theatre and the Van Kleef Aquarium. The international airport at Changi (opened in 1981) was developed on reclaimed land to the northeast. The National University of Singapore was founded in 1980 by the merger of the University of Singapore and Nanyang University. The Nanyang Technological Institute was established in the former Nanyang University in 1981. Tiger Balm Gardens is a collection of statuary depicting Chinese myths and legends.

An introduction to density, specific weight and specific gravity.

April and October are intermonsoonal periods characterized by sluggish air movements and intense afternoon showers and thunderstorms. Altogether, Singapore’s precipitation averages about 95 inches annually, and rain falls somewhere on the island every day of the year. Singapore’s history dates back at least eight hundred years, having been a maritime emporium known as Temasek and subsequently a major constituent part of several successive thalassocratic empires.

In order to understand these expenses, start by breaking them down. This means that 26.65% of every dollar XYZ Inc. earns gets spent on SG&A expenses. Get instant access to video lessons taught by experienced investment bankers. Learn financial statement modeling, DCF, M&A, LBO, Comps and Excel shortcuts.